Solar Eclipse is a condition seen from the Earth when the moon passes between the Earth and the Sun and then fully or partially blocks the Sun. With every eclipse the geometry of the moon, sun and Earth changes. There are various different types of solar eclipses which include partial eclipse, total eclipse, annular eclipse and hybrid eclipse.
The geologic eon of the Earth’s history includes Phanerozoic, Proterozoic and Archean. Various era of the history comprises of Cenozoic, Mesozoic and Paleozoic. Various periods of Earth history are Neogene, Palaeogene, Cretaceous, Jurassic, Triassic, Permian, Carboniferous, Devonian, Silurian, Ordovician and Cambrian.
The sight of the Earth’s satellite is undoubtedly an amazing view with a naked eye but when the same view is taken from a pair of binoculars or a telescope, it becomes even more amazing. One can see that dark, flat plains known as Maria, deep craters and the bright rays of the ejected material is scattered over the rugged surface. In the early 1600s, Galileo Galilei was able to observe the terrain of the moon with the help of the first astronomical telescopes.
In order to make sure that there is successful entry, descent as well as landing at the Mars, the intensive preparations are done by the engineers during the approach phase which is 45 days before when the spacecraft enters the atmosphere of the Mars. It takes around 7 minutes to come from the top of the atmosphere down to the surface.
A piece of an iron or rocky debris that flies through the space is known as a meteoroid which can vary from the size of a grain to a boulder. When these meteoroids are large in size they are known as asteroids. Comet is a nucleus or a solid body which is made up of dust, ice and frozen gases. When comet comes closer to the sun, there are glowing tails of the vapour which may be seen as the nucleus heats up.
Saturn V was designed so that it can fly 3 Apollo astronauts to the moon and bring them back. The first unmanned test flight of Saturn V was made in the year 1967 and then from 1967 to 1973, 13 Saturn Vs were launched that carried Apollo missions and Skylab space station. During a mission, every part of the big sized rocket is used and then discarded and only a small command module is able to come back to the Earth.
Alpha Centauri A and B are the closest stars to the Earth. These stars form a binary system that orbits each other at around a distance from our sun to the Uranus planet. Another star called Proxima also exists but it is dimmer and it may also be bound by the other 2 stars gravitationally. The mass of Alpha Centauri A, B and Proxima Centauri are 1.1, 0.97 and 0.12 respectively whereas their distance from the Earth is 4.37 light years, 4.37 lights and 4.24 light years respectively.
During mid 1955, United States made an announcement that in order to commemorate the International Geophysical year in 1957, they will launch the first satellite and it was also realized by Soviet Union that 1957 was also the 40thanniversary of Bolshevik Revolution. The official designation that was given to Sputnik was “PS-1” or “Elementary Satellite 1”. On 4th of October, 1957 the satellite was launched with the main aim to place a radio transmitter into the orbit around the Earth.
Transit is a rare event which is seen from our vantage point and occurs when there is a right orbital position and the 2 planets -Mercury and Venus who has smaller orbits than Earth, cross the sun’s disc.
Hayabusa which was formerly known as “MUSES-C” was a spacecraft that was developed by Japanese in order to study and return a sample of S-Type asteroid called “25143 Itokawa” to the Earth for further analysis. The spacecraft was launched on 9th of May, 2003 and it reached the asteroid Itokawa on 12th of September, 2005.
Yuri Gagarin who was a Russian pilot was the first person to reach the space in the year 1961 and since then, with the help of various different vehicles more than 500 people have landed into the space. 12 people have got the opportunity of walking over the moon and 14 have been able to fly over the moon without landing. Vostok was the first human spaceflight that was built by USSR and it took its first flight in the year 1961.
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